Since the last 50 years, a lot of research has been done to get an understanding of genetic material, namely DNA. A good understanding of the function of DNA in cells has led humans to carry out various research efforts to bring benefits to life, especially in the field of Biotechnology. Aside from that, perhaps you also need the finest lab equipment from biologia molecular.
For example, DNA fingerprinting or DNA fingerprinting in forensic analysis that makes it easier for police work to catch criminals. Another example is GMO plants or plants engineered by DNA so that they can produce higher yields or have desired properties, such as being resistant to herbicides or living on dry land.
In fact, at this time DNA testing can be done to determine the possibility of the condition of our child later. That way, the possibility of a rare genetic defect or disease can be identified. Although there are many new and complex things about DNA, actually the chemical structure of DNA is simple and neatly arranged so that it is easy to understand.
What is DNA?
DNA is a material that forms chromosomes and is also genetic information stored in the body of living things. This genetic information is basically a collection of instructions/commands that regulate cells to be able to do certain things.
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. The word deoxyribose refers to the name of the sugar contained in DNA, namely deoxyribose.
The chemical makeup of DNA is a polymer in the form of a long chain of nucleotides.
Keep in mind that one nucleotide consists of one phosphate group, one component of a pentose sugar (5-carbon), and one nitrogen base. The only difference between each nucleotide is the nitrogen base.
There are only 4 possible bases found in each one DNA nucleotide, namely adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), or cytosine (C). The sequence variation of the four bases forms a genetic code in the cell.
Maybe this is considered strange, with only 4 letters on DNA, different genetic information can be inherited from the offspring of living things. That’s actually natural because on the chromosomes there are millions of nucleotides, so many different combinations even though they only come from those 4 letters.